Biogenic methane (CH4) – generated by ruminants as a by-product of digestion (less than 5% comes from dung and effluent systems).
Nitrous oxide (N2O) – released into the atmosphere from dung and urine patches, and nitrogen (N) fertilisers.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) – urea nitrogen (N) fertilisers contribute to farm CO2 emissions.
Energy use is the other driver of farm CO2 emissions. As it is already accounted for under the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) it is not included in the He Waka Eke Noa pricing system.